Graphene-like materials could be used in the fabrication of electronic and optoelectronic devices, gas sensors, biosensors, and batteries for energy storage. Since it is almost impossible to work with defect-free or impurityfree materials, it is essential to understand how defects and impurities alter the electronic and vibrational properties of these systems. Technologically speaking it is more important to distinguish between different types of defects (impurities) and determine if their presence is desirable or not. This review discusses these issues and provides an updated overview of the current characterization tools able to identify and detect defects in different forms of graphene.
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Materials Today (2012) 15(3), 98-109