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3D printing is emerging as an enabling technology for a wide range of new applications. From fundamentals point of view, the available materials, fabrication speed, and resolution of 3D printing processes must be considered for each specific application. This review provides a basic understanding of fundamentals of 3D printing processes and the recent development of novel 3D printing materials such as smart materials, ceramic materials, electronic materials, biomaterials and composites. It should be noted that the versatility of 3D printing materials comes from the variety of 3D printing systems, and all the new printers or processes for novel materials have not gone beyond the seven categories defined in ISO/ASTM standard. However, 3D printing should never be seen as a standalone process, it is becoming an integral part of a multi-process system or an integrated process of multiple systems to match the development of novel materials and new requirements of products.

This article originally appeared in Applied Materials Today 7, 2017, Pages 120-133.

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