Abstract: Raising the coulombic efficiency of lithium metal anode cycling is the deciding step in realizing long-life rechargeable lithium batteries. Here, we designed a highly concentrated salt/ether electrolyte diluted in a fluorinated ether: 1.8?M LiFSI in DEE/BTFE (diethyl ether/bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)ether), which realized an average coulombic efficiency of 99.37% at 0.5?mA?cm−2 and 1 mAh cm−2 for more than 900 cycles. This electrolyte also maintained a record coulombic efficiency of 98.7% at 10?mA?cm−2, indicative of its ability to provide fast-charging with high cathode loadings. Morphological studies reveal dense, dendrite free Li depositions after prolonged cycling, while surface analyses confirmed the formation of a robust LiF-rich SEI layer on the cycled Li surface. Moreover, we discovered that this ether-based electrolyte is highly compatible with the low-cost, high-capacity SPAN (Sulfurized polyacrylonitrile) cathode, where the constructed Li||SPAN cell exhibited reversible cathode capacity of 579 mAh g−1 and no capacity decay after 1200 cycles. A cell where a high areal loading SPAN electrode (>3.5 mAh cm−2) is paired with only onefold excess Li was constructed and cycled at 1.75?mA?cm−2, maintaining a coulombic efficiency of 99.30% for the lithium metal. Computational simulations revealed that at saturation, the Li-FSI complex forms contact ion pairs, with a first solvation shell comprising DEE molecules, and a second solvation shell with a mix of DEE/BTFE. This study provides a path to enable high energy density Li||SPAN batteries with stable cycling.

Ultrahigh coulombic efficiency electrolyte enables Li||SPAN batteries with superior cycling performance
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DOI: 10.1016/j.mattod.2020.09.035