Abstract: In order to meet the growing demand of portable electronic devices and electric vehicles, enhancements in battery performance metrics are required to provide higher energy/power densities and longer cycle lives, especially for anode materials. Alloying anodes, such as Group IVA elements-based materials, are attracting increasing interest as anodes for next-generation high-performance alkali-metal-ion batteries (AMIBs) owing to their extremely high specific capacities, low working voltages, and natural abundance. Nevertheless, alloying-type anodes usually display unsatisfactory cycle life due to their intrinsic violent volumetric and structural changes during the charge–discharge process, causing mechanical fracture and exacerbating side reactions. In order to overcome these challenges, efforts have been made in recent years to manufacture multimetallic anodes that can accommodate the induced strain, thus showing high Coulomb efficiency and long cycle life. Meanwhile, much work has been conducted to understand the details of structural changes and reaction mechanisms taking place by in-situ characterization methodologies. In this paper, we review the various recent developments in multimetallic anode materials for AMIBs and shed light on optimizing the anode materials. Finally, the perspectives and future challenges in achieving the practical applications of multimetallic alloy anodes in high-energy AMIB systems are proposed.

Advances in multimetallic alloy-based anodes for alkali-ion and alkali-metal batteries
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DOI: 10.1016/j.mattod.2021.05.001