Materials that enhance bone regeneration have a wealth of potential clinical applications from the treatment of nonunion fractures to spinal fusion. The use of porous material scaffolds from bioceramic and polymer components to support bone cell and tissue growth is a longstanding area of interest. Current challenges include the engineering of materials that can match both the mechanical and biological context of real bone tissue matrix and support the vascularization of large tissue constructs. Scaffolds with new levels of biofunctionality that attempt to recreate nanoscale topographical and biofactor cues from the extracellular environment are emerging as interesting candidate biomimetic materials.

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DOI: 10.1016/S1369-7021(08)70086-5