Rapid progress in materials science and electrical engineering has led to the development of miniature electronic platforms that have devices and components as small as the main components of live cells. These developments open up an exciting possibility of building integrated systems in which electronic and biological components function side-by-side. However, to realize this vision of bionanoelectronics, researchers need to overcome a number of challenges ranging from materials incompatibility to drastically different operation modes. Fortunately, recent developments in biosensing, and device-level and tissue-level integration with nanomaterials have started to address these challenges.

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DOI: 10.1016/S1369-7021(09)70248-2