Major improvements in biological fuel cells over the last ten years have been the result of the development and application of new materials. These new materials include: nanomaterials, such as nanotubes and graphene, that improve the electron transfer between the biocatalyst and electrode surface; materials that provide improved stability and immobilization of biocatalysts; materials that increase the conductivity and surface area of the electrodes; and materials that aid facile mass transport. With a focus on enzymatic biological fuel cell technology, this brief review gives an overview of the latest developments in each of these material science areas and describes how this progress has improved the performance of biological fuel cells to yield a feasible technology.

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DOI: 10.1016/S1369-7021(12)70070-6