Responsive biomaterials for 3D bioprinting: A review

Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting enables a controlled deposition of cells, biomaterials, and biological compounds (i.e., bioinks) to build complex 3D biological models, biological living systems, and therapeutic products. Developing responsive biomaterials as novel bioinks has been a central focus of research in the field of bioprinting because of their controllable material properties in response to printing-induced external or internal stimuli. In this review, we highlight the most recent advances of responsive biomaterials for 3D bioprinting applications. We review commonly used stimuli-responsive biomaterials and strategies for utilizing multifunctional responsiveness to achieve desirable printability, structural formabilitycell viability, and construct bioactivity for 3D bioprinting. We also summarize major bioink formulation strategies currently adopted in 3D bioprinting. We subsequently discuss several promising applications of 3D printing involving responsive biomaterials, such as bioprinting in a supporting bath, 4D bioprinting, and bioprinting new controlled drug delivery systems. Future perspectives on the design and development of novel multifunctional bioinks based on responsive biomaterials and technological innovations are also presented.

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DOI: 10.1016/j.mattod.2022.01.001