The scaling of silicon integrated circuits to smaller physical dimensions became a primary activity of advanced device development almost as soon as the basic technology was established. The importance and persistence of this activity is rooted in the confluence of two of the strongest drives governing the business; the push for greater device performance, measured in terms of switching speed, and the desire for greater manufacturing profitability, dependent upon reduced cost per good device built.

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DOI: 10.1016/S1369-7021(04)00051-3