Increasing power densities and decreasing transistor dimensions are hallmarks of modern computer chips. Both trends are increasing the thermal management challenge within the chip and surrounding packaging, as well as accelerating research progress on high-conductivity materials. This article reviews recent materials advances with a focus on novel composite substrates and interface materials, including those composites leveraging the high conductivities of carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, attention is given to the special properties of one-dimensional structures that are likely to be of increasing importance in future applications.

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DOI: 10.1016/S1369-7021(05)70935-4