Aqueous rechargeable batteries offer a safe alternative for electrochemical energy storage, integrating cost-efficiency and energy density to meet the demand for stationary applications. Recent efforts have focused on the improvement of electrode materials in aqueous electrolytes, particularly the cycle life and energy reliability of batteries. The anion intercalation chemistry in graphite could be an alternative cathode candidate, often requiring an upper cut-off potential above 4.5 V vs. Li+/Li. Such a potential readily exceeds the electrochemical stability windows of water-based electrolytes. Herein, we provide a progress report and critical comment on the reversible intercalation chemistry in graphite compounds, i.e., anion and halogen intercalations, for the development of economical, high-energy aqueous rechargeable batteries. In addition, this review focuses on the charge carrier species, their charge storage mechanisms and battery configurations, aiming to provide solutions to solve the remaining key challenges for aqueous batteries.

Advances and issues in developing intercalation graphite cathodes for aqueous batteries
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DOI: 10.1016/j.mattod.2022.01.020