After some definitions to establish common ground and illustrate the issues in terms of orders of magnitude, we note that meeting the Energy challenge will require suitable materials. Luckily, we can count on the availability of natural resources for most materials. We briefly illustrate the connection between materials and energy and review the past and the present situations, to focus on the future. We wrap up by arguing that more than bare economics is required to use the fruits of science and technology towards a world order, built on sustainable energy (and materials) resources.

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DOI: 10.1016/S1369-7021(08)70248-7