Interfacial materials play an important role in determining the efficiency of an organic photovoltaic (OPV) cell. They are not only responsible for establishing ohmic contact, but also determining different device parameters such as the internal electric field, the film morphology, and the carrier recombination rate which are important to the device performance. Here, we will present the material properties and requirements for these interlayers used in high efficiency OPV cells. This paper aims to reveal the different roles of interlayers, introduce techniques for characterizing their properties, and provide an insight into the future development of novel interlayers for high efficiency organic photovoltaic cells.

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DOI: 10.1016/j.mattod.2013.10.001