Controlling biointerfacial phenomena is crucial to the success of many biomedical technologies. For applications in biosensing, diagnostics, and medical devices, precise control of interactions between material surfaces and the biological milieu is an important but elusive goal1. Emerging strategies for manipulating the biological response to medical materials seek to take advantage of specific interactions between designed surfaces, biomolecules, and cells2. Limiting nonspecific interaction of cells, proteins, and microorganisms with material surfaces is critical, since these interactions can prove highly problematic for device efficacy and safety. Thus, a central research focus continues to be the development of versatile, convenient, and cost-effective strategies for rendering surfaces resistant to fouling by proteins, cells, and bacteria.

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DOI: 10.1016/S1369-7021(05)71079-8