During the past century, synthetic materials and devices have been developed to the point at which they can be used successfully to replace and/or restore function to diseased or damaged tissues. In the field of orthopedics, the use of metal implants has significantly improved the quality of life for countless individuals. Critical factors for implant success include proper design, material selection, and biocompatibility.Early research in this field focused on understanding the biomechanical properties of metal implants, but recent work has turned toward improving the biological properties of these devices. This has led to the introduction of calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramics as a bioactive interface between the bulk metal impart and the surrounding tissue. The first CaP coatings were produced via vapor phase processes, but more recently solution-based and biomimetic methods have emerged. While each approach has its own intrinsic materials and biological properties, in general CaP coatings promise to improve implant biocompatibility and ultimately implant longevity.

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DOI: 10.1016/S1369-7021(03)01128-3