Abstract: Regeneration of osteochondral tissue is of great potentialities in repairing severe osteochondral defects. However, anisotropic physiological characteristics and tissue linage difference make the regeneration of osteochondral tissue remain a huge challenge. Herein, a multicellular system based on a bilayered co-culture scaffold mimicking osteochondral tissues was successfully developed for an alternative of osteochondral regeneration via a 3D bioprinting strategy. The dual function of integrally repairing both cartilage and bone could be achieved by designing multiple-cells distribution and a cell-induced bioink containing bioceramic particles. As an important bioactive agent, the Li-Mg-Si bioceramics-containing bioink exhibited the function of simultaneously stimulating multiple cells for differentiation towards specific directions. The 3D bioprinted co-culture scaffolds showed the capacity for osteochondral tissue regeneration by inducing osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation in vitro and accelerating the repair of severe osteochondral defects in vivo. This study offers a potential strategy for complex tissue reconstruction through bioprinting multiple tissue cells in combination of bioceramics-stimulating bioinks.

3D bioprinting of multicellular scaffolds for osteochondral regeneration
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DOI: 10.1016/j.mattod.2021.04.016