The future of nanoscience and nanotechnology depends critically on techniques for micro- and nanofabrication. An emerging set of methods, known collectively as soft lithography, uses elastomeric stamps, molds, and conformable photomasks for patterning two- and three-dimensional structures with minimum feature sizes deep into the nanometer regime. The powerful patterning capabilities of these techniques together with their experimental simplicity make them useful for a wide range of applications. This article reviews recent progress in the field of soft lithography, with a focus on trends in research and steps toward commercialization.

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DOI: 10.1016/S1369-7021(05)00702-9