The great success of graphene throws new light on discovering more two-dimensional (2D) layered nanomaterials that stem from atomically thin 2D sheets. Compared with a single element of graphene, emerging graphene-like 2D materials composed of multiple elements that possess more versatility, greater flexibility and better functionality with a wide range of potential applications. In this review, we provide insights into the rapidly emerging 2D materials and their biosensing and bioimaging applications in recent three years, including 2D transition metal nanomaterials, graphitic nitride materials, black phosphorus, and emerging 2D organic polymers. We first briefly highlight their unique 2D morphology and physicochemical properties and then focus on their recent applications in electrochemical biosensing, optical biosensing and bioimaging. The challenges and some thoughts on future perspectives in this field are also addressed.

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DOI: 10.1016/j.mattod.2017.09.001