Abstract: Nanoscale materials possess distinct physical and chemical attributes including size-dependent properties, quantum confinement, high surface-to-volume ratio, and superior catalytic activity. These unique qualities enable sensors with high sensitivity, robustness, and fast time response. As the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT) demands increased production of sensors, it also provides an impetus for concentrated nanomaterial-based sensor research. Meanwhile, additive manufacturing (AM) of nanomaterial-based sensors is critical to bridge the gap between one-off, lab-scale fabrication and cost-effective, industrial-scale production with high reproducibility. By applying the design flexibility and cost savings of AM techniques, a new generation of nanomaterial-based sensing platforms can be integrated with IoT devices in the consumer space. Furthermore, emergent research in human–machine interfaces, food safety, and point-of-care diagnostics will be expedited by the development of sensors that can be printed with irregular form factors. In this Review, the relative strengths and weaknesses of printed sensor systems based on zero-, one-, and two-dimensional nanomaterials are discussed. In addition, sensors enabled by printable soft nanomaterials, heterostructures, and nanocomposites are surveyed due to their synergistic advantages for wearable healthcare monitoring and soft robotics. Finally, a roadmap for the next decade of research on this topic is provided.

Additive manufacturing and applications of nanomaterial-based sensors
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DOI: 10.1016/j.mattod.2021.02.001