Currently, the demand for clean energy to replace fossil energy is increasing dramatically, which is driving the fast development of lithium batteries and other advanced battery systems with high energy density, high power density, good safety and low price. On the way from laboratory to market, the problems of different materials and battery systems should be overcome first. Therefore, qualitative and quantitative techniques that can operate under real battery working conditions are urgently needed to determine the reasons for these limits and reveal the kinetics and mechanisms of electrochemical reactions. In this review, such in-situ imaging techniques are introduced in detail with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of their functions and limitations, and to promote their wide use to solve the existing problems in advanced batteries. The limitations of these techniques are also discussed.

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In-situ imaging techniques for advanced battery development
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DOI: 10.1016/j.mattod.2022.05.021