Problems related to passive learning in large undergraduate physics classes were first identified and researched over a decade ago [1] and are still under investigation [2], [3]. Students experience difficulties in learning physics because they must fully understand concepts and principles of the physical world that are sometimes impossible to see (as in electromagnetism phenomena) and often difficult to comprehend. On top of these difficulties, there are the requirements to master quantitative and formulaic representations of scientific phenomena in order to conceptualize and use them in work4.

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DOI: 10.1016/S1369-7021(03)01225-2